La Orientación a la Dominancia Social: una invariante psicológica en la legitimación de las filosofías de desigualdad social

La Orientación a la Dominancia Social: una invariante psicológica en la legitimación de las filosofías de desigualdad social

Orientation to social dominance: a psychological invariant in the legitimation of social inequality philosophies

Luis Carlos Jaume, Marcelo Agustín Roca, Susana Celeste Azzollini
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32351/rca.v5.149

Resumen

Distintos enfoques teóricos a lo largo de la historia han intentado explicar por qué las sociedades establecen ideologías que piensen las relaciones intergrupales como desiguales y jerárquicas, y por qué es aceptado por los individuos. Entre las perspectivas que ahondaron estas filosofías de la desigualdad se encuentran: el funcionalismo y el marxismo. Ambas visiones son incompletas y se centran en modelos top-down (pensando la dinámica de la sociedad de arriba hacia abajo). A la vez distintas teorías psicológicas, como la teoría de la identidad social, la teoría cultural ideológica, la teoría de la justificación del sistema y la teoría del conflicto realista, empezaron a investigar el factor psicológico en la adhesión a una ideología, virando los el foco hacia modelos bottom up. En los últimos años, la teoría de la dominancia social incorpora aportes de las teorías mencionadas y postula que existe un deseo de los individuos por instaurar y mantener jerarquías sociales, por medio de la subordinación de ciertos grupos a otros. Si bien este fenómeno se ha estudiado en distintos países de manera empírica, no se evidencian trabajos en español que hayan realizado una revisión teórica exhaustiva. Es por ello que el objetivo de este trabajo será realizar una revisión teórica sobre la SDT.

Abstract

Different theoretical approaches throughout history have tried to explain why societies establish ideologies that think intergroup relationships as unequal and hierarchical, and why it is accepted by individuals. Among the perspectives that deepened these philosophies of inequality are: functionalism and Marxism. Both visions are incomplete and focus on top-down models (thinking about the dynamics of society from top to bottom). At the same time different psychological theories, such as the theory of social identity, ideological cultural theory, the theory of system justification and the theory of realistic conflict, began to investigate the psychological factor in adherence to an ideology, turning the focus to bottom-up models. In recent years, the theory of social dominance, incorporates contributions from the aforementioned the aforementioned theories, and postulates that there is a desire of individuals to establish and maintain social hierarchies, through the subordination of certain groups to others. Although this phenomenon has been studied in different countries empirically, there is no evidence of works in Spanish that have carried out a comprehensive theoretical review. That is why the objective of this work will be to carry out a theoretical review on the SDT.

Palabras clave:

Teoría de la Dominancia Social; Orientación a la Dominancia Social; Ideología de la desigualdad

Keywords:

Social Dominance Theory; Social Dominance orientation; Ideology of inequality

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Sobre el autor:

Luis Carlos Jaume
ID de ORCID Instituto de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicología (UBA-CONICET) Universidad de Buenos Aires
Argentina

Lic. en Psicología del Instituto de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicología (UBA-CONICET) Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Marcelo Agustín Roca
ID de ORCID Universidad de Buenos Aires
Argentina

Lic. en Psicología, docente de la Universidad de Buenos Aires

Susana Celeste Azzollini
ID de ORCID Universidad de Buenos Aires. (CONICET)
Argentina

Doctora en Psicología. Profesora Adjunta en la asignatura Psicología Social, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Investigadora Independiente. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET).


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