TANTRA O YOGA. ESTUDIOS CLÍNICOS, 3ª PARTE: COMPARATIVA

Oscar R. Gómez

Resumen


Varios estudios clínicos muestran cómo las prácticas tántricas y los ejercicios de las tradiciones védicas -como el yoga- o budistas theravada o mahayana tienen un impacto psicobiológico significativo. Este estudio compara el correlato neurofisiológico de las prácticas llamadas meditaciones tántricas y no-tántricas mediante una revisión sistemática cualitativa de los datos recolectados. Se evidenció que las prácticas tántricas producen aumento en la actividad simpática, del estado de «alerta fásica» y en el rendimiento en tareas cognitivo visuales. Promueven una mayor vigilia y menor propensión al sueño, generan un incremento en la actividad cognitiva y modificaciones metabólicas contrarias a las que se verifican de las no-tántricas como consecuencia del relax inducido por esas prácticas. En oposición,  las no-tántricas crean una mejor respuesta de relajación con actividad parasimpática incrementada e inhibición del sistema simpático, que induce un estado hipometabólico de descanso profundo donde el practicante permanece despierto y su atención en «alerta tónica» con los síntomas correspondientes a ese estado hipometabólico -hipotonía, disminución del consumo de oxígeno, de la tasa cardíaca y de la concentración de lactato en sangre-, modificación del normal funcionamiento endócrino, aumentos en la concentración de fenilalanina en los meditadores avanzados, en los niveles de prolactina plasmática, un incremento de cinco veces en los niveles plasmáticos de arginina vasopresina, mientras que la hormona estimulante de la tiroides disminuye de forma crónica y aguda. Esta diferencia neurofisiológica se corresponde con las diferencias encontradas en los textos investigados que señalan que las tántricas apuntan a incrementar el estado de alerta o una cualidad despierta de la mente y advierten contra la calma excesiva y, por el contrario, las escrituras y las instrucciones de meditación de la tradición védica -yoga, theravada o mahayana- apuntan a lograr quietud y calma. Indicamos futuras investigaciones clínicas desde un enfoque más interdisciplinario e incorporamos el marco teórico/filosófico de los diferentes tipos de meditación.

 

Abstract

Several clinical studies show how tantric practices and exercises of Vedic traditions - such as yoga- or Theravada or Mahayana Buddhists - have a significant psychobiological impact. This study compares the neurophysiological correlates of the practices called tantric and non-tantric meditations by a qualitative systematic review of the data collected. It was evidenced that the tantric practices produce increase in the sympathetic activity, the state of "phasic alertness" and in the performance in visual cognitive tasks. They promote greater alertness and lower propensity to sleep, generate an increase in cognitive activity and metabolic modifications contrary to those that are verified of non-tantric as a result of the relaxation induced by these practices. In contrast, non-tantric creams create a better relaxation response with increased parasympathetic activity and inhibition of the sympathetic system, inducing a deep rest hypometabolic state where the practitioner remains awake and his attention on "tonic alertness" with corresponding symptoms to that hypometabolic state -hypotonia, decreased oxygen consumption, heart rate and blood lactate concentration- change in normal endocrine function, increased phenylalanine concentration in advanced meditators, increased plasma prolactin levels, a five-fold increase in arginine vasopressin plasma levels, while thyroid stimulating hormone decreases chronically and acutely. This neurophysiological difference corresponds to the differences found in the investigated texts which point out that: the tantric ones aim to increase alertness or an awakened quality of the mind and warn against excessive calm and on the contrary, the writings and instructions of meditation of the Vedic tradition, yoga, Theravada or Mahayana aim to achieve stillness and calmness. We indicate future clinical research from a more interdisciplinary approach and incorporating the theoretical / philosophical framework of the different types of meditation.


Palabras clave


Estudios clínicos; tantra; tántrico; yoga; theravada; vipassana; mahayana; zen; mindfulness; vajrayana; EEG; ECG; IRMf; neuroimágen; neurofisiología; inmunología; endocrinología; psicología; tantric; clinical study; immunology; endrocinology; psychology

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