BASES PSÍQUICAS DE LA EXPLOTACIÓN DE LOS DALITS EN LA INDIA

Ratan L. Basu , , _1

Presidency College, Calcutta and University of Calcutta, India.

Correspondence: E-mail:


RESUMEN

El término dalit significa oprimido y pisoteado. De hecho, los dalits en la India, los más bajos de las castas inferiores y los más pobres de los pobres, son pisoteados (social, político y económicamente) por los ricos, especialmente los pertenecientes a las castas superiores. Los dalits comprenden aproximadamente el 16.6 por ciento de la población de la India, pero su participación en la propiedad de la tierra y la propiedad, el acceso a la educación y el empleo y los servicios sociales básicos son miserablemente bajos. La peor práctica inhumana contra ellos es la práctica de la intocabilidad. Esto se asocia a varios tipos de atrocidades perpetradas sobre ellos por los ricos pertenecientes a las castas superiores. Toda esta explotación social se asocia con la explotación económica y la esclavitud. En general, la raíz de la enfermedad puede remontarse al código de Manu que da una justificación legal, ética y religiosa al sistema existente de explotación de las personas pertenecientes a las castas inferiores. Las leyes de Manu indican cómo la plétora de nuevas sub-castas se generó a través de matrimonios entre castas y así surgieron los antepasados de los dalits modernos. Los descendientes de las tribus bárbaras (Mlechchas) subyugados por los arios aumentaron sus filas. El objetivo básico de este artículo es acercarse a la profundidad de la psicosis humana que da lugar a las prácticas socioeconómicas explotadoras y discriminatorias relacionadas con los dalits y otras castas inferiores. En este sentido vamos a destacar la psicosis primordial de la minoría inteligente y privilegiada perteneciente a las castas superiores para dar origen y perpetuar la discriminación y la explotación inhumana de la mayoría perteneciente a las castas inferiores. La psicosis está profundamente arraigada en los modos humanos básicos analizados y elaborados en la Filosofía Samkhya de la India antigua. Según Samkhya Philosophy, la conciencia humana es una parte de la manifestación material de la naturaleza, y es la combinación de tres modos básicos: Sattwa, Rajas y Tamas, dotados por la Naturaleza. Todos estos modos básicos se combinan en diferentes grados para asignar diferentes características a diferentes individuos. Si está aislado en el abstracto, Sattwa no mezclado pertenece a la bondad y la virtud, Rajas a la pasión y el deseo insaciable y Tamas a la oscuridad de la mente, la obsesión y la inercia. Todas nuestras facultades mentales e intelectuales proceden de estos tres modos básicos. En consecuencia, todos los individuos pueden clasificarse ampliamente en tres categorías principales, a saber. Sattwic, Rajasic y Tamsic. Las personas en los estratos superiores de la sociedad están en el estado rajásico y los dalits se ven obligados a estar en el nivel más bajo del estado tamasico a través de la pobreza, el analfabetismo, las costumbres sociales, las creencias religiosas y las medidas legales Siendo controlado por la minoría rajásica. Este proceso de deshumanización de los dalits comenzó hace mucho tiempo para cumplir con la avaricia y el poder de los estratos superiores rajásicos como es evidente de las prescripciones de los textos de Manu. La única manera de salir de esta enfermedad es elevar a los dalits y otras castas explotadas como los Shudras desde el estado de Tamas hasta el estado de Rajas y más tarde a Sattwa a través de la rápida industrialización con las tecnologías modernas, la eliminación del analfabetismo y la pobreza abyecta del la mayoría explotada y la difusión de la educación científica y la visión del mundo científico para erradicar todos los modos tamasicos como las supersticiones, las obsesiones con los ritos religiosos, las distinciones y la discriminación contra la población sobre la base de la casta, el credo, la lengua maternal. De personas comunes a maestros y sacerdotes religiosos, celebridades y partidos políticos y líderes políticos. Para ello es necesario inculcar valores éticos y sattwic entre la minoría explotadora, los politicos, los partidos políticos y los medios de comunicación.

Received: 2017 February 1; Accepted: 2017 February 20

Revista Científica Arbitrada de la Fundación MenteClara. 2017 Apr 30; 2(1): 25
doi: 10.32351/rca.v2.1.25

Copyright

© 2017 RCAFMC - Este artículo de acceso abierto es distribuido bajo los términos de la licencia Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial (by-cn) Spain 3.0.

Keywords: Dalit, castas, explotación, esclavitud, India moderna, religión, opresión religiosa, opresión política, opresión económica, castes, exploitation, slavery, modern India, Vedas, religion, religious oppression, political oppression, economic oppression.

Section I. Introduction

A unique feature of poverty in India is its direct association with caste strata and caste related social rankings. This amazing dimension of poverty (both absolute and relative) in India has vividly been highlighted through the dalit issue which has become a hot topic of discussion in India in recent years. This has also become a political issue as the large number of dalits in India is likely to have an important bearing on ballot box outcomes in certain areas of some States in India.

The meaning of the term dalit (the word derived from Sanskrit and now in common usage in most of the major language in India) means tortured and trampled. Rightly the conglomerate of caste groups, collectively christened dalits in India, are literally trampled and tortured – socially, economically and politically – by the people belonging to the upper castes. Over and above, a tiny minority of the dalits who have been pampered and uplifted by the upper classes and shrewd politicians with the specific target of creating an intermediary group for smooth running of the machinery of exploitation of the majority of the dalits, also take part in this process of torture and exploitation of the unprivileged majority of the dalits.

It is very difficult to estimate exactly the number of dalits in India. But the most liberal estimate would make the number larger than the population of any country of the world except China, India, USA and Indonesia. Roughly they comprise about 16.6 per cent of India’s population. But their share of ownership of land and property, and access to education and employment and basic social amenities is miserably low. The worst inhuman practice against them is the practice of untouchability, which is rampant in all the States of India. This is associated with various kinds of atrocities perpetrated on them by the rich (mostly belonging to the upper castes and the upper strata of the lower castes). All these social exploitation have been associated with economic exploitation and slavery.

Most of the evidences reveal that the administrative machineries of all the State governments in India have been playing a pro-rich role in all cases of exploitation, atrocities and oppression of dalits by the upper castes and the rich irrespective of caste, although there are some legal provisions to prevent such activities to some extent.

All policies like land reforms and other measures intended to empower the dalits (economically, socially or politically) have been foiled by the bureaucrats belonging to the upper castes and the privileged minority (through the policy of reservation) of the lower castes.

So far as the motivation of the policies of the government is concerned, it has been to isolate the advanced segments of the dalits and other lower castes from the downtrodden majority, and to create a lower caste aristocracy to distract attention from the basic problems of the exploited majority. Moreover, the method of reservation has given a permanent stamp of social stigma to all lower castes including the dalits. So the short-term job or other opportunities offered to the advanced minority of the dalits and people belonging to the other lower castes has long term adverse consequences for the majority as the legal recognition of caste distinctions would be very difficult to erase even if the majority of the dalits and people belonging to the other other lower castes were economically and politically empowered.

So in all respects the dalits in India reveal a miserable picture and an affront to humanity. Their plight has further degenerated in course of economic reforms in India since 1991, because of endangerment of food security, shrinkage of employment opportunities, inflation, reduction of social sector amenities and increasing incidence of violence and atrocities committed against the dalits by the upper castes.

In this article, however, we are not going to explore these matters in detail. Our task here is to trace the origin of the concept and exploitation of the dalits in India and to highlight the ethical aspects of this issue. In general, the root of the malady may be traced back to Manusmriti (M.S.)1, the earliest dharmashastra (law book) of ancient India. In fact, the practice of caste system in India in its real form always revealed a design of the well to do minority to live on the surplus generated by the majority. So it actually became hereditary and became the most powerful tool for economic exploitation, which brought forth, as necessary concomitants, the social and political aspects of the caste system. M.S. ascribed a legal, ethical and religious justification to the existing system of exploitation. M.S. delineated how a plethora of new sub-castes was generated through inter-caste marriage. Here lies the root of origin of the dalits of modern India.

The basic objective of this article is to get down to the depth of human psychosis that gives rise to the exploitative and discriminatory socio-economic practices related to the dalits and people belonging to the other lower castes like the Shudras. In this connection we are going to highlight the primordial psychosis of the intelligent and privileged minority to give birth to and perpetuate discrimination against and inhuman exploitation of the majority. The psychosis is deeply rooted in basic human modes as analyzed and elaborated in the Samkhya Philosophy2 of ancient India.

According to Samkhya Philosophy, human consciousness is a part of material manifestation of Nature and it is the combination of three modes viz. Sattwa, Rajas and Tamas, endowed by Nature. All these basic modes combine in different degrees to assign different characteristics to different individuals. If isolated in the abstract, unmixed Sattwa pertains to gudness and virtue, Rajas to passion and insatiable desire and Tamas to darkness of mind, obsession and inertia. All our mental and intellectual faculties originate from these three basic modes. Accordingly all individuals may be classified broadly into three major categories, viz. Sattwic, Rajasic and Tamasic.

The people in the upper strata of the society are on the whole in the Rajasic state and the dalits are forced to be at the lowest echelon of the Tamasic state through poverty, illiteracy, social customs, religious beliefs, and legal measures by the state machinery which is being controlled by the Rajasic minority. This process of de-humanization of the dalits started long ago to fulfill the greed and power mongering of the Rajasic upper strata as is evident from the prescriptions of the Manusmriti.

The only way out of this malady is to raise the dalits and the people belonging to the other exploited classes like the Shudras from the state of Tamas to the state of Rajas and later on to Sattwa through rapid industrialization with modern technologies, removal of illiteracy and abject poverty of the exploited majority and spread of scientific education and scientific world outluk to eradicate all Tamasic modes like superstitions, obsessions with religious rites, classification of the population and the practice of discrimination against specific groups of people on the basis of caste, creed, mother tongue, religious practices etc., blind devotion of common people to religious gurus and priests, celebrities and political parties and political leaders. To this end it is necessary to inculcate ethics and Sattwic values among the exploiting minority, the politicians and political parties and the mass media.

To understand clearly the positions of the dalits in India, let us have a glimpse of the broad caste structure in India existing since prehistoric times and modified from time to time according to the specific requirements of the ruling and vested interest classes.

Section II. Caste System in India

The existing caste structure in India has a long history of evolution and its roots may be traced back in the Purusha Sukta of the Rig Veda, the most ancient religious and philosophical treatise of India. Now let us first have a glance at the original caste division as conceived by the ancient Indian shastras (religious, philosophical and legal texts of ancient India).

The four major castes, (i.e. hierarchical ranking of the society) in India prescribed first in the Rig Veda and repeated and elaborated in later shastras were:

1. Brahmana: Priests and scholars engaged in religious, academic, literary and philosophical activities.

2. Kshatriya: Political rulers, warriors and soldiers.

3. Vaishya: Persons engaged in trade, commerce and productive activities.

4. Shudra: The lowest caste in the Aryan hierarchy, comprising the majority of the population and serving the three upper classes. They were mainly laborers, peasants, artisans, and servants of the three upper classes.

The ancient Indian term for caste was ‘varna’ i.e. complexion. In general people belonging to the three upper castes were of fair complexion and the Shudras of swarthy complexion. So, it may be conceived that the former were were primarily Aryans (believed to be belonging to Cacasoid whilte races from central Asia which had invaded India and subjugated the ingenous people and got settled as rulers of the Indian suncontinent) and the Shudras, indigenous people (mainly proto-Australoid or Dravida) whom the Aryans had subjugated while invading the Indian subcontinent and incorporated these vanquished black people into the Aryan hierarchy as the fourth and serving class for their own interest.

The Vedic Concept

The relevant sloka from Rig Veda is:

“The Brahmanas were His Mouth, the Kshatriyas became His Arms, The Vaishyas were His Thighs, and the Shudras were assigned to His Feet” (Rig Veda, 10.90.12)3.

Caste System in Manusmriti

Manu opines that the creator has assigned specific duties to specific classes of people and to substantiate his views he repeats the Vedic concept viz., Brahmins originated from the mouth, Kshatriyas from the arms, Vaishyas from the thighs, and Shudras from the feet of the creator. So, they have different functions in all the ages. To quote:

1.87. But in order to protect this universe He, the most resplendent one, assigned separate duties and occupations to those who sprang from his mouth, arms, thighs, and feet4.

10.5. In all castes those children only which are begotten in the direct order on wedded wives, equal in castes and married as virgins, are to be considered as belonging to the same caste as their fathers5.

The lowest caste, viz. the Shudras, forming the majority of the population, was turned into almost slaves of the minority upper three through the guideline that the primary function of the Shudras is to serve the three upper castes. To quote:

1/91: One occupation only the lord prescribed to the Shudra, to serve meekly even these other three castes6.

Manu opines that if a person belonging to any caste relinquishes his assigned duties and adopts some forbidden duty, he will be degenerated, unless he is compelled to do so by unavoidable pressure of circumstances. To quote:

12.70: But men of the four castes, who have relinquished without the pressure of necessity their proper occupation, will become the servants of Dasyus, after migrating into despicable bodies7.

It appears that Manu emphasized that division of labour according to castes should be based on heredity.

Caste System in Mahabharata

From certain slokas of the epic Mahabharata, it may appear at first sight that the epic insisted on determination of caste of a person by his propensities and talents and not by birth. To quote:

“Everyone derives his own nature from the nature of his acts, in respect of their circumstances, place, and means and motives.” (Ganguli, Sec-62)8.

“Men, however, are always engaged in those acts to which their propensities lead. Those propensities, again, lead a living being to every direction.” (Ibid. Sec-62)9.

A deeper look would, however, make it clear that the above statements were relevant only to jatis, .i.e. the sub-castes within the four major castes based on specific occupation or type of activity, but not to the four major castes. It may be conceived that there was no restriction on free movement among the sub-castes but this was movements among the four major castes were strictly prohibited. The following sloka may throw further light on the matter:

“Agriculture, rearing of cattle, trade and other acts of a similar nature, should be caused to be carried on by many persons on the principle of division of labour.” (Ibid. Sec-88-p.200)10.

The epic insists that economic activities like agriculture, trade etc. should be conducted on the basis of division of labour. This is different from social division of labour on the basis of castes. It is the division of labour within each category of production on the basis of efficiency.

The major social division of labour prescribed in the epic is based on the basic Indian rule - division of the society into four major castes, viz. Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra and assignment of specific duties to each caste. Their duties are in brief:

“Menial service attaches to the Shudra; agriculture to the Vaishya; the science of chastisement to the Kshatriya, and Brahmacharya, penances, mantras, and truth, attach, to the Brahmana.” (Ibid. Sec-91, p-206)11.

Mahabharata, however, mentions that a Brahmana by birth would be degraded if he fails to abide by the rules prescribed for his caste. To quote:

“That wretched Brahmana who falls away from his duties and whose behavior becomes wicked, becomes, O king, a Shudra. The Brahmana who weds a Shudra woman, who becomes vile in conduct or a dancer or a village servant or does other improper acts, becomes a Shudra. Whether he recites the Vedas or not, O king, if he does such improper acts, he becomes equal to a Shudra and on occasions of feeding he should be assigned a place amongst Shudras. Such Brahmanas become equal to Shudras, O king, and should be discarded on occasions of worshipping the Gods.” (Ibid. Sec-63)12.

“The Brahmana who is addicted to the practices of Kshatriyas and Vaishyas and Shudras, incurs censure in this world as a person of wicked soul and goes to hell in the next world. Those names which are applied among men to slaves and dogs and wolves and (other) beasts, are applied, O son of Pandu, to the Brahmana who is engaged in pursuits that are improper for him.” (Ibid. Sec-62)13.

There is, however, no rule for up gradation of a person from a lower to an upper caste.

Shudras were being exploited by the three upper castes.

Manu prescribes for prohibition of wealth accumulation by a Shudra. To quote:

10.129. No collection of wealth must be made by a Shudra, even though he be able (to do it); for a Shudra who has acquired wealth, gives pain to Brahmanas14.

Still the Shudras were part of the Aryan social hierarchy. On the other hand, the mlechchas (barbarians) and outcastes (mixed castes) from which the modern dalits have descended were not considered to be part of the Aryan social hierarchy. The origin of the outcastes has been described in detail in Manusmriti. Manu defines them as mixed castes originating from intermarriage of the four castes.

Section III. Mixed Castes and Origin of the Dalits

Besides the four major castes many mixed-castes originated because of inter-caste marriages. Manu specified the functions of these mixed-castes rigidly. These mixed castes originated from inter-caste marriages, and went on ramifying with increasing branches with the passage of time. For example, among the four basic castes marriages of lower-caste males with upper caste females may create 6 inferior castes, from these 6 sub-castes, further 120 (5x4x3x2x1) sub-castes may be generated through inter-caste marriages and so on. The sub-castes mentioned by Manu include:

Acharya, Ahindika, Ambashtha, Andhra, Antyavasayi, Avantya, Avrita, Ayogava, Bhurjakantaka, Chandala, Chunchu, Dasa, Dhigvana, Jhalla, Kaivarta, Karavara, Karana, Karusha, Khasa, Kshettri, Kukkutaka, Madru, Magadha, Maitra, Maitreyaka, Malla, Margava, Meda,Nata , Nichchhivi, Nisada, Pandusopaka, Parasava, Pukkasa, Pushpadha, Saukha, Sairandhra, Sopaka, Svapacha, Sudhavan, Suta, Ugra, Vaideha, Vaidehaka, Vatadhana, Vena.

All these castes have been assigned the most difficult, risky and dirty tasks and considered as untouchables and to reside far away from the habitations of the mainstream of the four basic castes. The functions assigned by Manu to these mixed castes are activities which even the Shudras would not take part in. They are to live like slaves; many of them are to live outside the dwelling areas of the four Aryan castes without any right to enter these areas. They are to be despised by the upper castes although their activities were essential for various purposes like cleaning of dirt, carcasses etc. There were also various restrictions about their foods, garments and dwelling places and their properties or rightful possessions. In fact, they were destined by shastra rules to live subhuman and abominable lives.

The origin through inter-caste marriage and the functions of some sub-castes are described in Mansmriti, Book-10 (see Appendix-I for detail). The economic and social status of the outcastes has remained almost unaltered over millennia. Trials and tribulations of history have brought about many changes in this subcontinent, but they have not left any imprint of the miserable plight of the outcastes. In modern India, the roots of the dalits are to be traced back to the mixed castes and Mlecchas (barbarians) of ancient India.

Many warrior indigenous castes subjugated by the Aryans were incorporated into the higher echeleon of Kshatriya if they accepted the norms prescribed for the Kshatriya caste by the shastras. In case they failed to do so, they were still accepted in the Aryan hierarchy as Vratya Kshatriyas and degradedto the satus of Shudras. To quote:

“But in consequence of the omission of the sacred rites, and of their not consulting Brahmanas, the following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually sunk in this world to the condition of Shudras; (Viz.) the Paundrakas, the Chaudras, the Dravidas, the Kambojas, the Yavanas, the Shakas, the Paradas, the Pahlavas, the Chinas, the Kiratas, and the Daradas.” 15

The subjugated barbarian tribes were, however, assigned the status of Dasyus or Mlecchchas and excluded from the Aryan hierarchy. To quote:

“All those tribes in this world, which are excluded from the community of those born from the mouth, the arms, the thighs, and the feet of the creator, are called Dasyus, whether they speak the language of the Mlechchas (barbarians) or that of the Aryans.” 16

Now let us have a glimpse of the economic and social status of the dalits, (the descendants of the mixed castes and the Mlecchas of ancient India), in modern India after more than half a century of Independence.

Section IV. Plight of the Dalits in India Today

The dalits, belonging to the lowest castes and comprising about 16.6 per cent of India’s population (Population Census of India, 2011), are mainly landless agricultural labourers and they are the purest and the most vulnerable section of the Indian society.

The social and economic discrimination against the dalits are interrelated and exploitation takes various inhuman forms and even today they are mostly treated by the people belonging to the privileged classes as sub-humans to be utilized but at the same time despised as in the ancient times.

The major forms these discriminations and exploitations assume are:

Untouchability

In most of the States in India, dalits are forced to live in segregated slums on the outskirts of villages and the location of the slums is determined by economic factors, viz. the requirement of free or cheap labour, with some pseudo religious justification. Some of the examples of this heinous crime against humanity are given below.

1. In many villages of the country, the dalit postmen are not permitted to cycle through the upper caste sections and if they violate this edict, they are severely beaten up and do not get any protection of existing laws against such violence.

2. In many areas teashops keep separate cups and glasses for the dalits.

3. Dalits are beaten up for dressing better.

4. Various underhand methods are adopted by the people belonging to the upper castes to deprive the dalits of their democratic right of voting.

5. Dalits, along with people belonging to other lower castes, have been deprived of their rights over common properties through privatization of these properties by people belonging to upper castes.

7. Dalits are not permitted to enter the temples in many areas.

Untouchability is responsible for:

(a) Denial of basic needs, land rights and civil liberties to the dalits

(b) Inferior social and economic status of the dalits

(c) Sub-human living and working conditions

(e) Mal-nourishment and bad health conditions

(f) High levels of illiteracy

Untouchability was theoretically abolished under Article 17 of the Indian Constitution. But still the practice continues to determine the socio-economic and religious standings of the dalits in India. A Dalit is not generally permitted to change the occupation inherited by birth (Rao, Anupam, 2009; Devi, Vidya, 2009).

Rape of Dalit Girls

Rape of dalit girls is a common crime in rural India and the upper caste people do not follow the rules of untouchability in this case. Sometimes this serves the upper castes in two ways – fulfillment of perverted desires and punishment for protests or attempts to exercise political rights by dalit women (Devi, Vidya, 2009).

Practice of Bonded Labour System

Bonded labour in India, also known as Debt Bondage and Peonage, arises from taking loans by the poor which cannot be repaid and the borrower according to the terms and conditions for default is obliged to serve as the slave of the lender. The sons and daughters of the miserable borrower in most of the cases inherit the slavery due to un-repaid loans by parents.

Once a dalit or for that matter any other poor person takes loan from a money lender, he falls into a snare from which he would never be able to free himself. The amount of loan goes on snowballing through accumulation of interest and more through manipulations (for example putting additional zeros to the right of the original amount) and ultimately according to the terms and conditions of borrowing (which the illiterate borrower could never read or understand at the time of borrowing), the borrower becomes the slave of the lender for life and also for his descendants after his death (Srivastava, Ravi, S. (2005).

Indian Parliament enacted Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act, 1976. But the heinous practice is still rampant in rural India.

The basic objective of this article is to get down to the depth of human psychosis that gives rise to the exploitative and discriminatory socio-economic practices as depicted above or in any other form prevalent in other societies, ancient or modern. In this connection we are going to highlight the primordial psychosis of the intelligent and privileged minority to give birth to and perpetuate discrimination against and inhuman exploitation of the majority. The psychosis is deeply rooted in basic human modes as analyzed and elaborated in the Samkhya Philosophy of ancient India.

Section V. Human Modes and Psychosis of Exploitation – the Samkhya Concepts

According to Samkhya Philosophy, human consciousness is a part of material manifestation of Nature and it is the combination of three modes, viz. Sattwa, Rajas and Tamas, endowed by Nature17. All these basic modes combine in different degrees to assign different characteristics to different individuals. If isolated in the abstract, unmixed Sattwa pertains to goodness and virtue, Rajas to passion and insatiable desire and Tamas to darkness of mind, obsession and inertia. All our mental and intellectual faculties originate from these three basic modes (Ballantyne 1885). Accordingly all individuals may be classified broadly into three major categories (detail given in Appendix-II).

Of the three modes viz. Tamas, Rajas and Sattwa, as analyzed by Samkhya Philosophy, let us first take up Rajas and Tamas to give a brief description of the working of the psychosis. The practice of creating rules for virtual slavery of the majority in the name of religion or divine providence, originated in time immemorial from the basic human mode which may be termed Rajas in accordance with Samkhya. The situation may be broadly depicted to have a first hand idea in the following manner.

RAJASIC MINORITY

LAWS OF SHASTRAS OR STATE RULES FOR RULING OVER

TAMASIC MAJORITY

The system has been necessary since time immemorial for the Rajasic minority to rule and flourish at the cost of the majority.

Now let us take up the relevant aspects from Samkhya and explain the above matter in detail and more deeply and elaborately.

If one is capable of grasping the essence of this aspect of Samkhya he would be able not only to explain and devise remedial measures for dalit issues or similar exploitative mechanisms but also that pertaining to most other maladies human society has been afflicted with since ancient times or originated during historical past or even in recent times. The most elaborate analysis of this aspect of Samkhya Philosophy is found in the Indian the philosophical text Gita (a part of the epic Mahabharata). Let us have a glimpse of the analysis of Samhya in Gita.

Gita and Samkhya

The sacred Hindu scripture Gita describes in detail the various aspects of the basic attributes briefly defined in Samkhya Philosophy (see Appendix-III for detail).

Nature fetters the eternal individual soul to the body by the three modes, viz. Sattwa, Rajas and Tamas.

(i) Tamasic (dominated by Tamas mode)

(ii) Rajasic (dominated by Rajas mode)

(iii) Sattwic (dominated by Sattwa mode)

A Rajasic person is activated by material desires (for wealth, power, sensual pleasures etc.) and attached to his works (too much concerned with the fruits of work), is full of greed and selfishness, egotism, restlessness and excitement over the results of his works. He may undertake austerity, acts of sacrifice and charity, but only to get something in return (revenue, power, social positions etc.) and to make a show off. He cannot distinguish between righteousness and unrighteousness, and right and wrong actions.

A Tamasic person is full of inertia leading to ignorance, delusion, slowness of mind, carelessness, laziness, inactivity, excessive sleep, vulgarity, malice. He performs sacrifices only as a mechanistic ritual, observes austerity with foolish stubbornness, with self-torture or for harming others, and undertakes charity without paying respect to the receiver. His head is full of irrational and baseless knowledge, fear, grief, despair, fatalism and he undertakes action out of delusion, disregarding his abilities and loss or injury to others. He is always depressed and procrastinating. He accepts unrighteousness as righteousness and thinks everything to be that which it is not.

In a country like India Tamasic forces manifest mainly through:

1. Religious and Other Superstitions

2. Unnecessary and Burdensome Religious Rituals

3. Blind Devotion to Religious Priests and Gurus

4. Blind Devotion to Political Parties and Political Leaders

5. Blind Devotion to All Categories of Celebrities

6. Division of Society on the Basis of Caste, Creed, Mother Tongue, and Religion, and Reservations, Untouchability, Discrimination on the basis of these irrational divisions

7. Tamasic Attitude and Activities of Political Parties and Mass Media

8. Poverty and Illiteracy

Ripus: Now let us take up another concept of Hindu philosophy, viz. the concept of ripu. In general ripus means enemies. These ripus in Hindu philosophy are excesses of some basic instincts or reflexes of human mind or intellect. They are necessary for our material existence. As such they are not enemies. But for beneficial effects they must be balanced and kept under our control. If they are in excess, they become our enemies and result in disastrous effects both for us and for the human society. The western scholars often mistakenly translate ripu as sin. But ripus are not sins, rather sources of sins or vices. There are six ripus: kama (desire for material pleasure/sexual desire/lust), krodha (anger), lobha (greed), moha (infatuation/attachment/obsession), Mada (pride/vanity/arrogance), matsarya (envy). To quote:

Shree Devi said, “The Yoga does not exist in the Heavens; nor does it exist on earth or in the nether regions (Patala). Those who are skilled in the Yogas say that the realisation of the identity between the Jivatma and the Paramatma is Yoga O Sinless One! The enemies to this Yoga are six; and they are lust, anger, greed, ignorance, vanity and jealousy. The Yogis attain the Yoga when they become able to destroy these six enemies by practising the accompaniments to Yoga.”18

The basic instincts, pertaining to the ripus, can be used for good or bad purposes, but by themselves they are neutral. Sexual desire is normal and good, but sexual obsession is harmful. Controlled anger is also a necessary element that makes us human -- without it we cannot have respectability. Greed is a form of desire -- it can be an insatiable foolish desire or positive desire that can be used as an incentive for progress. Likewise, vanity and pride are necessary for self respect and envy can foster healthy competition. If the basic instincts are kept under control, they are always beneficial, but if they get the better of us, they turn into enemies and ruin us in the short or long run.

Gita considers kama (in the wider sense it means the desire for worldly pleasures), krodha (anger) and lobha (greed) the most serious among the ripus.

“Triple is the gate of this hell, destructive of the self—lust, anger, and greed,—therefore, one should abandon these three.” (Sivananda, Swami Sri, 2016)19

Gita describes how ripus originate from the perverted attachment to worldly pleasures and lead one on to the path of destruction.

“When a man thinks of the objects, attachment to them arises; from attachment desire is born; from desire anger arises.

“From anger comes delusion; from delusion the loss of memory; from loss of memory the destruction of discrimination; from the destruction of discrimination he perishes.” (Ibid.)20

A self-controlled person, who is capable of keeping under restraint senses pertaining to ripus, attains peace of mind.

“But the self-controlled man, moving amongst objects with the senses under restraint, and free from attraction and repulsion, attains to peace.” (Ibid.)21

The ripus take various major forms under different modes.

For Sattwic persons they are fully controlled and turn out benign – they reside in such a person in perfect harmony with ethical living. To him kama, in the narrow sense, gets sublimated by love and is associated with birth of children, and in the wider sense it turns into desire for knowledge and wisdom; krodha becomes reserved demeanor that inspires respect in the honest persons, and awe in the miscreants, lobha turns into hankering for getting access to the unknown eternal being; mada turns into dignity, confidence and self respect; moha turns into strict adherence to ethical and righteous living; matsarya (jealousy) gets converted into love, fellow feeling and philanthropy.

For Rajasic persons the ripus combine to result in insatiable greed and power mongering and to dominate over other persons and society. For them, kama in the narrow sense takes the form of preoccupation with sensual pleasure, and in the wider sense it leads to insatiable craving for power and wealth (by just or unjust means); krodha takes the form of secret planning and conspiracy for taking reprisals; lobha gets associated with achieving all sorts of material pleasures, power, fame etc.; moha makes him always preoccupied with the fruits of his works and activities; mada and matsarya goad him to desperate and restless activity in order to supersede all his superiors.

For a Tamasic person kama is associated with perverse and brutal sexual desire, forceful violation of the opposite sex, incest and unnatural sex behaviour. His krodha is blind and destructive, both for others and for himself; his lobha centers on all conceivable dirty and shabby pleasures – addictions to drugs, alcohol etc. For him, mada leads to false vanity and day-dreaming; moha is full of superstitions, baseless knowledge and inactivity; matsarya burns his soul and goads him to inflict harm on others. For him the ripus result in inertia, fatalism and submission to slavery.

The Rajasic people try to force the majority to languish in the Tamasic state so as to rule them and build up their economic and social power by enslaving them and extracting their surplus products.

Coming to our context, the people in the upper strata of the society are in the Rajasic state and the dalits are forced to be at the lowest echelon of the Tamasic state through poverty, illiteracy, social customs, false religious beliefs, and legal measures by the state machinery which is being controlled by the Rajasic minority. This process of de-humanization of the dalits started long ago to fulfill the greed and power mongering of the Rajasic upper strata as is evident from the prescriptions of the Manusmriti.

In earlier systems in India the Rajasic feudal or semi-feudal rulers, the priests, and the businessmen thrived on the economic exploitation (social and political deprivations were necessary to perpetuate the economic exploitation) of the lower Tamasic strata, mainly the dalits. In the era of globalization, politicians and political parties in our country have turned into mere characters in a puppet-show, the operators being the capitalists -- now-a- days, the Rajasic Multinational Corporations (MNCs), who want to bind the entire world with the chains of slavery. Within the LDCs, the politicians (who themselves are slaves of the capitalists) thrive on slavery of the Tamasic masses.

In the next section we are going to look into the possible way out of the dilemma. We would first have a cursory glance at the major attempts made so far towards devising a way out of the dilemma as pointed out above – the Marxian Approach, Mao-Zedong’s Cultural Revolution and Human Development Paradigms of Amartya Sen. All these efforts have turned out to be inefficacious mainly because the proponents have looked upon the basic issues superficially failing to comprehend the basic cause which lies deep in human psychology. Thereafter an attempt would be made to eke out a probable solution in the light of the Samkhya Philosophy.

Section VI. The Way Out

1) The Marxian Approach (for quotes see Appendix-IV)

Now as regards the cause of oppression, exploitation, and increasing poverty and inequality along with material progress Marx and Engels held class society and the institution of private property responsible. But because of either superficial observation or obsession with some specific motive, they failed to visualize that these are but manifestations of some deeper cause inherent in human nature. They, in fact, identified the effect as the cause and lapsed into the tautological fallacy. They also invented the concept of class struggle as the sole cause of transformation of human society from one stage to another and also found in it the ultimate means of resolving the problem.22

Marx insisted on overthrowing the existing State Machinery with the help of the weapon of ‘class struggle’, and replacing it by the rule of the proletariat class, the immediate task of which would be to abolish private property 23

The class struggle would continue and ultimately end up in a classless, stateless, family- less society of eternal bliss.24-25

Marx and Engels strongly asserted that their concepts had been derived from historical facts rather than their own inventions.26

The conviction of Marx and Engels that class struggle had played the crucial role in every qualitative transition of human society in the past is hardly convincing – it is neither supported by historical facts nor can it be substantiated by any logically consistent theory. So is also the prediction of a stateless-classless society. Moreover their apparently factual stages of development were based mainly on the observations of the economic history of some developed European countries, especially, the United Kingdom. These stages are difficult to find in Asiatic countries like India, China etc. Now think of the so called proletarian philosophy. The depth of knowledge and introspection required to grasp the essence of the Marxian world outlook can hardly be found among the wage-earning classes. Thus it is simply a world outlook invented by the speculative faculty of a highly intelligent and well read middleclass intellectual like Karl Marx who claimed it to be springing from the historical experience of the labour class. Nothing could be more ludicrous than this.

Ironically, the Socialistic States, which were conceived as a means to do away with social injustice, ultimately degenerated into another instrument of human slavery (Fast 1957, Solzhenitsyn 1969, 1971, 1985). Ultimately, most of the oppressive socialist regimes collapsed during late 1980s and early 1990s27.

Marx failed to realize (because of either superficial observation or myopic view or parochial obsessions) that causes of poverty, inequality, exploitation and similar maladies do not lie in private property, family relations, the state or any other visible phenomenon as such, but it lies deep in human nature, in the unethical sentiments like greed, pride, jealousy etc. So, eradication of the maladies, if at all possible, is to be accomplished by some process that would reduce the prevalence of these basic vices in human mind. There has been a misconception (which mainly sprang from the overenthusiastic observations of western authors like Joan Robinson28) that Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution was such a process of moral transformation. But any deep observation of the Cultural Revolution in China would reveal that the Maoist method was simply the shibboleth of class struggle.

2) Mao-Zedong’s Cultural Revolution

The ideal of socialism, although utopian and based on Tamasic means, is Sattwic in its goal – to abolish the Rajasic (and the raison-d’être of all poverty, inequality and exploitation) capitalistic system along with its Rajasic culture and world outlook. Indefatigable Mao endeavoured to prevent China from going the Soviet way, although he, too, ultimately failed because of his wrongly chosen means, viz. the Marxist concept of class struggle. Nonetheless, it would be a grave injustice to Mao if we fail to appreciate his historical contribution as one of the greatest crusaders against exploitation and injustice. So it is worthwhile to have a look at the Mao’s tragic experience in course of two dramatic episodes in modern Chinese history, viz. the Great Leap Forward (GLF) and the Cultural Revolution (CR).

The following developments prompted Mao to hastily resort to the CR:

Mao wanted to adopt radical Marxist policies in order to pave the way for a rapid transition (Great Leap) of the Chinese economy from a semi-feudal condition to socialism. The Second Five Year Plan (1958-63) was chosen as the starting point of the GLF. Mao, notwithstanding his noble intentions, failed to realize that his methods would not work in a country still dominated by Tamasic masses, government officials and members of the communist party. The inevitable consequence was miserable failure leading to economic disaster and death of millions of people by famine. Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping and Zhou Enlai got disillusioned with socialism and opted for Soviet type State-Capitalism. Mao was held responsible for the disaster and he resigned from the position of head of the state (although retained the position of Party Chairmanship). Because of his honesty and dedication, he was still the most revered politician among the Chinese masses. So Mao opted to root out the bourgeois world outlook (which, he rightly identified as the major cause of failure of the GLF) with the help of the masses and apparently radical socialists like Jiang Qing, Lin Biao, Chen Boda and Kang Seng. So he planned to launch the so-called CR. He, however, had been obsessed with the wrong notion about the students, peasants and the factory labourers, who were Tamasic in essence. He also failed to judge the characters of Jiang Qing and Lin Biao.

Moreover, the declared means of the CR, for the removal of the capitalistic or bourgeois elements from power in the communist party and the government, was the Tamasic class struggle.

The consequences of the CR was simply devastating – chaos, anarchy, civil war, arson, looting, wanton destruction of property and productive resources, killings and all other conceivable manifestations of Tamas. The CR left China in a condition as though gripped under a horrible cyclone. In course of the turbulent incidents, there were shuffling and reshuffling of centre of power from one leader to another. It turned out to be a power struggle between two radical groups led respectively by Lin Biao and Jiang Qing. With the supremacy of the latter group, Chen Boda, a follower of Lin, was arrested and killed and Lin was killed in a plane crash while fleeing China in 1971. But then the wind took a reverse turn, now against the remaining radicals led by Jiang Qing. Mao died and then Jang Qing, the last powerful activist of the CR, was arrested in 1976. CR came to an abrupt end leaving China in shambles (Barnouin and Yuchanggen 1993, Chen 1975, Domes 1973, Joseph et. al. (eds.) 1991, Lee 1978, Tang 1986).

3) Human Development Paradigm of Amartya Sen

Amartya Sen emphasized that to contain the maladies associated with material progress in the era of globalization, public action is essential. He has considered pluralistic democracy as the most desirable form of governance which could ensure growth with social justice along with human freedom. Although better than authoritarian forms of governance in many respects, political party based democracies are overburdened with widespread corruption based on criminal-trade union-politician alliance. Sen emphasizes the role of the mass media and awareness of the common people to break through this vicious circle and make the politicians, running the governments, work in a desirable fashion (Drèze and Sen 1989; Drèze, Sen and Hussain 1995; Sen, Amartya 1981).

Unfortunately this optimistic note of Sen has come up against a serious hurdle pointed out by Adam Smith long ago. According to Smith a psychosis common to most of the people, whatever be their own positions, is that they admire the powerful and the rich (whatever be the means of their achievements) instead of the really worthy ones, viz. the honest and virtuous who has failed to achieve power and wealth. Outside the arena of ancient Indian philosophies, Adam Smith, the Moral Scientist and Father of Modern Economics, is conceivably the lone person who could rightly visualize the real cause of the malady in terms of baser and nobler sentiments residing in the depths of human mind. He had also pointed out the basic hurdles on the path of removing the malady which may be termed as the Smithian Dilemma.

The Smithian Dilemma

Adam Smith unequivocally explained why material achievements in the form of economic power is conceived as the best server of self interest of an individual in spite of all personal hazards associated with it. Here Smith goes deep into basic human psychology and puts forward his findings from empirical observations in this regard. An inherent nature of any human being, whatever his own position, is to praise and worship the successful and rich people, whatever immoral be the means by which this opulence has been achieved. Moreover, most people nurture in their subconscious, the hidden desire to achieve opulence and fame so as to get the praise and approbation of all and sundry (Smith, Adam 1759).

This undeniable nature of masses belies all hopes to bring back the corrupt politicians to the path of ethics and virtue. The inner discipline of all the major political parties makes it impossible for the ordinary members to protest against the mischief of the leaders. Moreover “leader worship” for Smithian psychosis makes the cadres, members and supporters of political parties to ignore the heinous activities of the leaders. The corrupt politicians also inculcate the inherent corrupt mentality of the common people. Thus the politicians get absolute freedom to do whatever best serves their personal interest even at the cost of the society and the masses.

Section VII. Samkhya Solution

Now in order to touch upon the probable way out of the intricate dilemma let us look more closely at the third mode of Samkhya, viz. Sattwa (and the Sattwic people).

Sattwic people are characterized by nobler qualities (like abstinence, self-sacrifice, love, philanthropy, mercy, self-confidence, diligence, and composure etc.) whereas Rajasic and Tamasic people possess various combinations of baser qualities (like greed, envy, hatred, anger, selfishness, lust, idleness, cruelty, and pride etc.) (Basu, 2005).

A Sattwic person is free from egotism, seeks knowledge of self and the eternal, performs duties unselfishly and without attachment (i.e. without desire rewards or fruits of the activities and unperturbed by success or failure), is full of resolve and enthusiasm.

For Sattwic persons, ripus are fully controlled and turn out benign – they reside in such a person in perfect harmony with ethical living.

Our ultimate objective would certainly be to uplift the majority of the population of the country on to the path of Sattwa but this would be feasible only after the majority is raised to the intermediary stage of Rajas. At the present stage, majority of the population of an LDC like India, with the overwhelming prevalence of the precapitalistic (Tamasic) modes of production, is languishing in the abysmal darkness of Tamas. So, it would be unrealistic to conceive of jumping to the path of Sattwa disregarding the intermediary stage of Rajas.

Two outside forces can play a crucial role in removing Tamas and usher in the stage of Rajas. They are:

1. Rapid industrialization based on modern technologies.

2. Spread of ecucation and scientific world outlook.

The former is necessary to do away with the Tamasic (precapitalistic) modes of economic acrtivities and prepare the material basis for removal of Tamasic values and world outlook. The latter, on the other hand, is a direct attack on TamaIsic psychosis, values, culture and world outlook.

Four aspects of Tamasic psychosis are to be dealt with at the very beginning. They are:

a) Superstitions and fatalism

b) Obsessins with religious rituals

c) Blind devotion to political parties, political leaders fake religious gurus and all classes of celebrities

d) Division of society and discriminatory practices on the basis of caste, creed, mother tongue and religious practices.

The ultimate solution to the issues related to the exploitation and oppression of the dalits and pther downtrodden classes is to raise all of them on to the path of Sattwa via the path of Rajas. The first step in this regard would, however, be to remove abject poverty of the oppressed classes, and provide them with the basic amenities of life like decent living conditions, safe drinking water, education, healthcare measures etc.

Simple concessions from above would not solve the basic problem. On the contrary, this may make the deprived dependent on outside help and thereby get further submerged in slavery and Tamas. Long ago, Rabindranath Tagore, the great Indian Noble Laureate poet, educationist and philosopher, had warned against this attitude of helping the common people. At the same time he suggested how Sattwic values could be inculcated among the masses. To quote:

“For this reason, the most urgent necessity in our country is not to place begging bowls at their hands, but to make them confident of their own strength, to make them realize that a man united with others is a complete entity, an alienated individual is but a fragment.” (Tagore, 1986).

On the basis of Tagore’s suggestions, it would be worthwhile to generate among the oppressed the awareness of self respect, power of unity and confidence on their own strength in order to change their fate. The philanthropic and educated middle class intellectuals can play a crucial role in this regard.

Role of the government and the NGOs

For implementation of the Samkhya measures for removal of the maladies pertaining to exploitation of the dalits and other downtrodden sections of the society, the government in collaboration with the philanthropic NGOs (Non-Government Organizations) of each country, especially of the LDCs, should come forward and undertake immediately the essential measures as listed below.

A. Rapid Industrialization & Technological Advancement (Rajasic modes of production) in all spheres of the economy in order to completely eradicate all vestiges of precapitalistic (Tamasic) modes of production.

B. Complete removal of illiteracy of the dalits and other backward sections of population.

C. Provision of basic amenities like employment, safe & hygienic dwelling places, safe drinking water, sanitation, healthcare facilities, minimum income necessary for nourishment and other basic amenities.

D. Spread of Moral & Scientific Education in order to inculcate scientific and ethical world outluk.

E. Measures (legal and educational) to remove the following forces that breed Tamas:

1. Religious and Other Superstitions

2. Unnecessary and Burdensome Religious Rites

3. Blind Devotion to Religious Priests and Gurus

4. Blind Devotion to Political Parties and Political Leaders

5. Blind Devotion to All Categories of Celebrities

6. Division of Society on the Basis of Caste, Creed, Mother Tongue, and Religion and Reservations, Untouchability, and Discrimination on the basis of these

7. Tamasic Attitude and Activities of Political Parties and Mass Media

End Notes


-(English Roman transliterations of Sanskrit have been given within parentheses. In transliteration ‘a’ is pronounced as ‘a’ in the English word ‘salt’ [close to ‘o’ in once in Spanish] and ‘ā’ is pronounced as ‘a’ in ‘fast’ [’a’ in hablar in Spanish])

- 1. Manusmriti (MS): Among the Dharmasastras (law books) in ancient India the text known as Manusmriti occupies a very important place because of its wide coverage and detailed guidelines for various aspects of human living. The text is surrounded by myths. It is claimed that the original text was composed by Manu, a mythical sage and the first king of the Hindus. Indologists, on the basis of mentions of the book in other ancient Indian texts, claim that the original Manusmriti existed even before 3000 B.C. The versions of the text with commentaries, available at present, were, however, written much later -- the earliest available version with commentaries by Medhatithi was written around 200 A.D. But even this version contains ideas that appear to be of much earlier origin. (Sen, Satyendra Nath 1976, Introduction, pp. ix-xiii). According to some authors, although originally based upon Vedic injunctions, the textbwas revised from time to time to incorporate new ideas not found in the Vedas (Dasgupta & De (eds.), 1962, Introduction, P. xxvi). There are also many vasyas (commentaries) on Manusmriti. The most popular available vasyas are of Medhatithi, Kulluka Bhatta, Govindaraja, Sarvajna-Narayana, Raghavananda, Nandana, Ramachandra and Gangadhara. They reflect the transition in the methods interpreting the text in accordance with the changes in values and requirements with changes in time.

- 2. There are six Vedic philosophies: Nyaya, Vaiśeshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mimamsa, and Vedanta. (Sen, K.M. 1961, PP.78-85).

- 3. Rig Veda-10.90.12: (Brāhmanosya mukhamāseed vāhu rājanyah kritah Uru tadasya yadvaishyah padbhyāng shudro ajāyata)

- 4. Manusmriti-1.87. (Sarvasya-asya tu sargasya gupti-arthas mahā-dyutih Mukh-vāhu-uru-pajjānāng prithakkarmānaya kalpayat)

- 5. Manusmriti-10.5. (Sarva varneshu tulyasu patnishu akshata-yonishu Anulomyena sambhuta jatyā jneyās ta eva te)

- 6. Manusmriti- 1.91. (Ekam eva tu shudrasya prabhuh karma samādishat Eteshām evavarānāng shushrushām anasuyayā)

- 7. Manusmriti-12.70.

(Svebhyah svebhyas tu karmabhyash chyutā varnā hyanāpadi

Pāpān sangsritya sangsārān preshyatāng yānti shatrushu)

- 8. Mahabharata-12.62. 4-5.

(Kashātrāni Vaishyāni cha sevamānah; shaudrāni karmāni cha brāhmanah san

asminla loke nindito mandachetāh; pare ch loke nirayang parayāti

yā sangyā vihitā loke dāse shuni vrike pashau

vikarmani sathite vipre tāng sangyāng kuru pāndava)

- 9. Mahabharata-12.62.8.

(Yo yasmin kurute karma yādrishang yen yatra cha

tādrishang tādrishenaiva sa gunang paratipadyate)

- 10. Mahabharata-12.62.11.

(Antavanti paradānāni purā shareyah karāni cha

savakarmanirato loko hay aksharah sarvato mukhah)

- 11. Mahabharata- 12.63.4-5.

(Shudro rājan bhavati brahma bandhur; dushchāritryo yasha cha dharmād apetah

vrishalee patih pishuno nartakasha cha; garāmapraishyo yasha cha bhaved vikarmā

japan vedān ajapangsha chāpi rājan; samah shudrair dāsavacha chāpi bhojyah

ete sarve shudra samā bhavanti; rājanna etān varjayed devakritye)

- 12. Mahabharata-12.89. 23.

(Krishigorakshya vānijyang yacha chānyata kin chida eedrisham

purushaih kārayet karma bahubhih saha karmibhih)

- 13. Mahabharata-12.92.4.

(Karma shudre krishir vaishye dandāneetish cha rājani

brahmacharyan tapo mantrāh satyam chāpi davijātishu)

- 14. Manusmriti-10.129.

(Shaktena-api hi shudrena na kāryo dhanasanchayah

Shudro hi dhanam āsādya brāhmanān eva bādhate)

- 15. Manusmriti-10.43. -10.44.

(Shanakais tu kriyālopād imāh kshatriya-jātayah

Vrishalatvang gatā loke brāhmanādarshanen cha

Paunadrakās chaudra-drāvidāh kāmvojā yavanā shakāh

Pāradā-pahlavāsh cheenāh kirātā daradāh svashāh)

- 16. Manusmriti-10.45. (Mukha-bāhu-uru-pad-jānāng yā loke jātayo bahih

Mlechcha-vāchash cha-arya-vāchah sarve te dasyavah smritāh)

- 17. In many English versions Sattwa is translated as gudness, Rajasa as passion and Tamasa as ignorance. But these renderings hardly convey the actual connotations of these terms – in fact there is no equivalent terms in English language as the concepts are new to the western world. So it would be judicious to incorporate these words directly into the English language.

- 18. The Devi Bhagavatam- 7.35.2-3 (Book-7, Chapter-35, Slokas-2-3).

(Shreedevyuvāch

Na yogo nabhasah prichhe na bhumee na rasātale

Aikyang jeevātmanorāhuryoga yogavishāradāh

Tatpratyuhāh shadākhyātā yogavighnakarānagha

Kāmakrodhau lobhamohau madamātsaryasngyakau)

- 19.(Trividham narakasyedam dwāram nāshanamātmanah;

Kāmah krodhastathā lobhas tasmādetat trayam tyajet)

[Sivananda, Sri Swami (2016), Sri.Bhavad Gita, 16.21 (Book-16, Sloka-21)]

- 20.(Dhyāyato vishayānpumsah sangasteshupajāyate;

Sangātsanjāyate kāmah kāmātkrodhobhijāyate.

Krodhād bhavati sammohah sammohāt smriti vibhramah;

Smritibhramshād buddhināsho buddhināshāt pranashyati) (Ibid. 2.62-63)

- 21.(Rāgadwesha viyuktaistu vishayānindriyaishcharan;

Ātmavashyair vidheyātmā prasādamadhigacchati) (Ibid. 2.64)

- 22. “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.

Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary re-constitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes.” (Marx and Engels, 1848 Ch-1, PP. 40-41)

- 23. “In this sense, the theory of the Communists may be summed up in the single sentence: Abolition of private property.” (Ibid. Ch-2, P. 63)

- 24. “The bourgeois family will vanish as a matter of course when its complement vanishes, and both will vanish with the vanishing of capital.” (Ibid. Ch-2, P. 68)

- 25. “The state, then, has not existed from all eternity. There have been societies that did without it, that had no idea of the state and state power. At a certain stage of economic development, which was necessarily bound up with the split of society into classes, the state became a necessity owing to this split. We are now rapidly approaching a stage in the development of production at which the existence of these classes not only will have ceased to be a necessity, but will become a positive hindrance to production. They will fall as inevitably as they arose at an earlier stage. Along with them the state will inevitably fall. Society, which will reorganize production on the basis of a free and equal association of the producers, will put the whole machinery of state where it will then belong: into the museum of antiquities, by the side of the spinning-wheel and the bronze axe.” (Engels, 1884, P.170)

- 26 “The theoretical conclusions of the Communists are in no way based on ideas or principles that have been invented, or discovered, by this or that would-be universal reformer. They merely express, in general terms, actual relations springing from an existing class struggle, from a historical movement going on under our very eyes.” (Marx; Engels, 1948, ch-2, P. 62)

- 27. The Socialist Regimes collapsed in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Romania in 1989, in Albania, East Germany and Yugoslavia in 1990 and in Russia (then USSR) at the end of 1991. Surprisingly this corresponded exactly with the predictions made by George Orwell long ago (Orwell 1949).

- 28. Robinson, Joan, (1970).


SOBRE EL AUTOR:

Dr. Ratan Lal Basu Is a Ph. D. in Economics (on Arthasastra of Kautilya). He is a prolific writer – Fiction, Indology, Ancient History, Economics, International Relations, Espionage, Scientific Interpretation of Religious and Mythological Texts, Yoga and Tantra Cult. He is an Alumnus of Presidency College, Calcutta and University of Calcutta. He retired as Reader in Economics and Teacher-in-charge of a govt. sponsored college and joined IIMS (Kolkata)-AIS, New Zealand Cross Credit Program as Principal. He is the Treasurer of Bengal Economic Association. He is an invited author on Indology of ‘Cosmopolis’, the bi-lingual (French and English) journal associated with the Encyclopedia jointly sponsored by the governments ofCanada and Belgium. He is associated as an author with ‘The Culture Mandala’ the journal of Bond University, Australia. He is one of the most notable critiques of the concept of Human Development Index (HDI)


Colaboraron con esta investigación:

Escuela Argentina de Tantra


Conflicto de intereses

None to declare

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Enlaces de Referencia



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Miembros destacados del Comité Científico del 2016:
Dr. Ümit SayinInstitute of Forensic Sciences, İstanbul University. Neuroscience at the Neurology Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA, Turkey
Dr. Ratan Lal BasuPresidency College, Calcutta & University of Calcutta, India
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