TANTRA O YOGA. ESTUDIOS CLÍNICOS, 1ª PARTE: YOGA

Oscar R. Gómez

Resumen


Varios estudios clínicos muestran cómo los ejercicios de las tradiciones védicas, como el yoga, o budistas theravada o mahayana así como las prácticas tántricas tienen un impacto psicobiológico significativo. Este estudio busca el correlato neurofisiológico de las prácticas llamadas meditaciones tántricas y no-tántricas mediante una revisión sistemática cualitativa de los datos recolectados. Primero se verificaron los resultados de las no-tántricas, luego se recolectaron los datos de las tántricas, se las comparó y presentamos el resultado dividido en tres partes. En esta primera parte se encontró que las no-tántricas crean una mejor respuesta de relajación con actividad parasimpática incrementada e inhibición del sistema simpático, que induce un estado hipometabólico de descanso profundo donde el practicante permanece despierto y su atención, en «alerta tónica» con los síntomas correspondientes a ese estado hipometabólico -hipotonía, disminución del consumo de oxígeno, de la tasa cardíaca y de la concentración de lactato en sangre-, modificación del normal funcionamiento endócrino, aumentos en la concentración de fenilalanina en los meditadores avanzados, en los niveles de prolactina plasmática, un incremento de cinco veces en los niveles plasmáticos de arginina vasopresina, mientras que la hormona estimulante de la tiroides disminuye de forma crónica y aguda. Esta investigación abre el camino para desarrollar estudios clínicos longitudinales, para confirmar los efectos benéficos a largo plazo de las prácticas y establecer mecanismos para contrarrestar los secundarios indeseados mostrados aquí.

 

Abstract

Several clinical studies show how exercises in Vedic traditions, such as Yoga, or Theravada or Mahayana Buddhisms as well as tantric practices have a significant psychobiological impact. This study seeks the neurophysiological correlate of the practices called tantric and non-tantric meditations through a qualitative systematic review of the data collected. First the non-tantric meditations results were checked, then the tantric meditations data was collected, finally both were compared and we hereby report the results arranged in three sections. In this first section, it was found that non-tantric meditations create a better relaxation response with increased parasympathetic activity and inhibition of the sympathetic system, which induces a deep rest hypometabolic state where the practitioner remains awake and their attention, in "tonic alertness" with the symptoms corresponding to such hypometabolic state -hypotonia, decreased oxygen consumption, heart rate and blood lactate concentration- change in normal endocrine function, increased phenylalanine concentration in advanced meditators, increased plasma prolactin levels, a five-fold increase in arginine vasopressin plasma levels, while thyroid stimulating hormone decreases chronically and acutely.  This research opens the door to conduct longitudinal clinical studies, to confirm the long-term beneficial effects of practices and establish mechanisms to counteract the unwanted side-effects herein presented.


Palabras clave


Estudios clínicos; yoga; meditación; theravada; vipassana; mahayana; zen; mindfulness; EEG; ECG; IRMf; neuroimágen; neurofisiología; inmunología; endocrinología; clinical study; meditation; neuroimagining; neurophysiology; immunology; endocrinology

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